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</o:shapelayout></xml><![endif]--></head><body lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=purple><div class=WordSection1><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt'>Atmospheric Sciences Seminar<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt'>Nicole L. Briggs, Ph.D.</span><span style='font-size:11.0pt'> | Senior Air Quality Scientist, Gradient Corp<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto'><b><span style='font-size:11.0pt'>What should we do with all of that coal ash? A framework to evaluate surface impoundment closure options.</span></b><span style='font-size:11.0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt'>Monday, Oct. 24<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt'>3:30 PM<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt'>ATG 310<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt'><o:p> </o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt'>Abstract:<o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt'>We developed a tool (the Framework) that enables coal-fired utilities to evaluate the potential human health and environmental impacts associated with two closure options for surface impoundments (SI) containing coal combustion residual (CCR).  The two options are Closure-in-Place (CIP), which involves installing a cap on the SI, and Closure-by-Removal (CBR), which involves excavation of the CCR and re-disposal of the CCR in lined landfill cells.  The Framework evaluates the relative impacts to groundwater, surface water, air quality, resource use, and worker and community safety under the two closure options.  The Framework and supporting analyses can be used by utilities to make informed closure option decisions that minimize adverse effects to human health and the environment.  <o:p></o:p></span></p><p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:11.0pt'><o:p> </o:p></span></p></div></body></html>